Brief Description: The order of Proboscidea includes the largest and most impressive terrestrial mammals that live today. Their representatives lived in Africa, Eurasia and the American continent. During the Pleistocene, they managed to colonize various islands of the Mediterranean, Indonesia and the Pacific Ocean (near USA California). There are more than 27 genera in total. Greece was lucky to shelter several species of Proboscidea, from the Miocene until the Holocene Period. On Tilos island, in the Charkadio cave, the last elephants of Europe lived and became extinct, only 4000 years ago, according to the up-to-date excavation data. The Order is divided in four suborders. The suborders that are interesting due to their presence in the Greek region are mentioned below. Suborder: Deinotheria (Lower Miocene ? Pleistocene) Deinotheria have downward curving tusks only on the lower jaw. Their molars are tapiroid, but larger, brachydont and lophodont. In Greece, several have been found in Miocene locations. Suborder: Mastodons (Lower Oligocene - Lower Holocene) It has one pair of incisors on both the lower and the upper jaw, developed into small tusks. The upper tusks are curved upwards. The molars are bunodont. Their presence in Greece is very well documented, from Mid-Miocene until the end of Pliocene. Suborder: Elephantoidea (Lower Pliocene ? today) A Proboscidea family of Pleistocene. They have tusks only on the upper jaw. In the Lower Tertiary (and/or Pleistocene) the first representatives of Archidiskodon lived, from which all the cold-living Mammoths originate that became extinct at the end of the Pleistocene Period. Genus Palaeoloxodon constitutes a particular group, in which the island indigenous forms of the Aegean and the rest of the Mediterranean until today are placed. Today species Loxodonta africana lives in Africa and species Elephas maximus in Asia. 
Bibliography: Γεωργιάδου-Δικαιούλια, Ε., Συμεωνίδης, Ν., Θεοδώρου, Γ. (2003) Παλαιο-ντολογία (μέρος Γ?), Εκδόσεις Γ. Γκελμπέση, Αθήνα.